The predecessor of Chiayi Hospital was the "Chiayi Hospital" in Yunlin and Chiayi. It was founded on November 27, 1895, 124 years ago. It was the first medical institution in the Chiayi area.
In the Chiayi area, two major earthquakes in March and April 1906 caused hospital houses to collapse, creating irreparable damage. The institution was rebuilt in 1907. In the December 1941 earthquake, the only remaining third ward collapsed.
Since there was a lack of resources during the Second World War, rebuilding projects wasvery difficult. The Republic of China received US financial aid of NT$ 12.28 million. The provincial government allocated NT$3.5 million to rebuild the four story reinforced concrete building, which was completed in December and expanded in 1973, 1983 and 1986, to reach the original scale. In 1999, it was renamed Chiayi Hospital of the Ministry of Health.
In 2013, it was renamed Chiayi Hospital of the Ministry of Health and Welfare.